November 15, 2023
NATIONWIDE – Stop AAPI Hate today released its first-ever online data visualization tool — which allows for deeper exploration of the coalition’s most up-to-date reporting center data — as well as a new report, Shades of Hate, that outlines key updates to how reported hate acts are categorized and analyzed. Together, these two data-related advancements enable a sharper, more nuanced look at how Asian and Pacific Islander communities in the U.S. experience various forms of hate, and what can be done to address it.
Stop AAPI Hate operates the nation’s largest reporting center dedicated to tracking community-reported acts of hate against Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAs and PIs). Today’s report and data visualization tool are a reflection of the coalition’s ongoing commitment to leveling up our shared understanding of anti-Asian and anti-Pacific Islander hate.
“We’re proud to unveil important upgrades to how we analyze and share our reporting center data, which will help deepen our understanding of all the various ways Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders experience racism and discrimination,” said Manjusha Kulkarni, co-founder of Stop AAPI Hate and executive director of AAPI Equity Alliance. “We’re aiming to equip policymakers, elected officials, and community organizations with even more information that will help them better serve Asian American and Pacific Islander communities.”
“Violent hate crimes have historically received the lion’s share of attention, and although it’s important to address them, our communities also see a critical need to shed light on historically overlooked types of hate that are nonetheless harmful and widespread — such as institutional discrimination, online hate, and verbal harassment,” said Cynthia Choi, co-founder of Stop AAPI Hate and co-executive director of Chinese for Affirmative Action. “Right now, we’re seeing alarming levels of institutional hate, including discriminatory land ownership bans targeting Chinese immigrants and threats to bar Muslims from the U.S. that would impact members of our community. In this climate, it’s more important than ever to understand not just interpersonal hate crimes, but also other acts of hate like discriminatory legislation. Ultimately, we hope our latest advancements will help shape a more comprehensive range of solutions that tackles all forms of hate.”
The Shades of Hate report details a new four-dimensional framework for hate acts that examines: 1) How the hate was experienced, 2) Who was involved, 3) What the hate act was, and 4) Where the act of hate took place. Under this framework, Stop AAPI Hate added new and more detailed categories for analyzing reported hate acts, including:
- Scope: a new category of “societal hate act” to distinguish whether an act of hate was intended to target individuals or communities;
- Experience of bias: more specific categories for determining the form of bias present (i.e., if the act was explicit, coded or perceived, if there was intersectional bias, and if there was unfair treatment involved);
- Offender position: new categories for tracking whether the offender was acting as an individual or as an institutional or organizational representative; and more.
With this update, Stop AAPI Hate is able to extract more nuanced insights about the myriad forms of anti-Asian and anti-PI racism, discrimination, and bigotry. Initial key findings based on a new analysis of the 11,409 unique acts of hate received between January 2020 and December 2022 include, but are not limited to:
- Hate is not confined to interpersonal interactions but is bred within a larger environment of societal hate, which requires a broader approach to prevention and healing.
- Hate is not just explicit, but also coded and hidden. Although it can be harder to detect, non-explicit hate is potentially more pervasive and just as harmful. Over half (51%) of reported hate acts include explicit racial bias. 20% of instances involve coded bias, while 29% involve perceived bias.
- Offenders are not just individuals but also institutions and institutional representatives. 15% of offenders worked for or represented an institution — offering insight into how racial bias manifests in institutions like schools or businesses.
- Nearly all (88%) of the reported hate acts involve some form of harassment, while 23% involve physical contact or harm and 13% involve institutional discrimination.
- Most hate acts occur in public spaces (51%) and places of businesses (28%).
The coalition’s new data visualization tool highlights these key insights and enables anyone to explore the reporting center data from different angles through features that can break down hate act reports not only by age, location, and gender but also by experience of bias, offender’s position, and scope. It also includes stories pulled directly from reports Stop AAPI Hate has received, such as:
“My Vietnamese wife and I (Filipino) were refused a table at [a restaurant]. We confronted the manager and he told us that we cannot sit in the front of the restaurant and took us to the back of the restaurant (which was empty) and hid us from the rest of the patrons. There were several other tables available in the restaurant, yet because of our Asian background we could not sit with the other patrons (who by the way were all white).” (Man, Northeast)
“The majority of hate acts targeting AAPI communities do not qualify as ‘hate crimes,’ and are therefore not captured by law enforcement. Stop AAPI Hate’s data is critical because it helps fill the gaps. We track hate acts like being called a racial slur or being accused of spying for the Chinese government simply because you look Asian, ” said Dr. Stephanie Chan, Stop AAPI Hate director of data and research. “Up until now, research on anti-AAPI hate has been very siloed and largely focused on either hate crimes or microaggressions. We’re now able to offer a more comprehensive picture of hate by weaving together what we know about hate crimes, microaggressions, civil rights violations, and systemic racism — all in one place.”
In conjunction with today’s release, Stop AAPI Hate calls on members of the AA and PI community, policymakers, advocates and community organizations to:
- Report hate acts: Add to our collective understanding of hate by sharing stories of hate you have experienced or witnessed, and help ensure our leaders work toward more informed solutions to address hate. We encourage any member of AA and PI communities who has experienced hate to report the incident at: https://stopaapihate.org/reportincident/.
- Explore our data: Our data can now be explored through Stop AAPI Hate’s interactive data visualization tool. This tool allows you to explore the breakdown of hate acts by the categories introduced in this report, compare data across different subgroups, and filter the data in a variety of ways.
- Advocate: Support holistic solutions to hate that get at the root causes like education equity, community-driven safety solutions, and civil rights enforcement. See what campaigns we are actively working on by visiting the campaigns page on our website.